Allele Frequencies in World Populations

Useful links

This section provides some links that we consider might be useful for the Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics Research Community.

Suggestions for additional links should be sent to Prof. Derek Middleton.


The IMGT/HLA Database

 The official database of the WHO Nomenclature Committee for Factors of the HLA System, created by Prof Steven GE Marsh, Anthony Nolan Research Institute, London, UK.

The IPD-KIR Database

 The official database of the KIR Nomenclature Committee, created by Prof Steven GE Marsh, Anthony Nolan Research Institute, London, UK.

dbMHC Anthropology

 The dbMHC is a database which provides the HLA community with a set of tools to submit, view and exchange MHC data.

Immune Epitope Database

 The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) contains data related to antibody and T cell epitopes for humans, non-human primates, rodents, and other animal species.

HLA Epitope Registry

 An online repository for the storage of antibody-verified HLA epitopes.


 The ALFRED database stores and makes publicly available allele frequency data on diverse polymorphic sites for many populations.
Research Groups


 HLA-NET is an European network of the HLA diversity for histocompatibility, clinical transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics. The HLA-NET provides an innovative framework to examine the standardisation of clinical work, ethical issues, population genetics, biostatistics and computer science applications to define common procedures and share high quality data and tools.


 The immunogenomics data analysis working group (IDAWG) is a collaboration of twenty-three investigators from ten nations with the goal of facilitating the sharing of immunogenomic data (HLA, KIR, etc.) and fostering the consistent analysis and interpretation of those data by the immunogenomics community and the larger genomics communities.
Organisations and Institutions

Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide

 Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW) is the continuing effort to collect the HLA phenotypes of volunteer bone marrow donors and cord blood units, and for the coordination of their worldwide distribution.

Eurotransplant Reference Laboratory

 Eurotransplant was founded in 1967 in Leiden, the Netherlands The Eurotransplant Reference Laboratory (ETRL) was founded shortly after the central registry was established. The aim of the ETRL is to increase the reliability of transplantation-related histocompatibility testing, including HLA typing, crossmatching, and screening for HLA specific antibodies in the patients' sera.
Online Tools

HLA Explorer

 An internet based information system that help physicians (transplant centers) and coordinators (stem cells donor registries) to examine Linkage Disequilibrium of HLA system in order to assist to find suitable unrelated stem cells donor.

HLA Completion

 A bioinformatic tool for HLA Class I typing data to combine 2, 4 digits or 2/4 alternatives and probabilistically resolve typing amibiguites.

NetMHCpan Server

 Predicts binding of peptides to any known MHC class I molecule.

NetMHCIIpan Server

 Predicts binding of peptides to any known MHC class II molecule.


 HLAMatchmaker is a computer algorithm to determine structurally based HLA compatibility and to identify acceptable HLA mismatches for highly sensitized patients.
Blogs and discussion groups

Immunogenetics & Transplantation Blog

 Immunogenetics & Transplantation blog contains a daily review of worldwide immunogenetics literature.
Other useful resources

HLA-Related Links

 A large collection of links to websites and databases related to HLA compiled by M. Tevfik Dorak.

Allele frequency net 2015 update: new features for HLA epitopes, KIR and disease and HLA adverse drug reaction associations.
Gonzalez-Galarza FF, Takeshita LY, Santos EJ, Kempson F, Maia MH, Silva AL, Silva AL, Ghattaoraya GS, Alfirevic A, Jones AR and Middleton D Nucleic Acid Research 2015, 39, 28, D784-8.
Liverpool, U.K.

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